بخشی از کتاب آداب وکالت در دادگستری

🔵 وکیل در مقام دفاع چه باید بکند ؟

🔶 عده ای وکیل را به شکل یک « تیر انداز حرفه ای » توصیف می کنند که در قبال وجهی که دریافت می کند ، به نفع موکّلش – صرف نظر از اینکه موکّل بی حق باشد یا ذیحق – وارد کارزار می شود.

🔹 او از خصومت موجود بین کسی که او را اجیر کرده با طرف بهره برداري مي كند و از احساس پیروزی پس از کشتن طرف لذّت می برد. با این تعریف و تشبیه وکیل در مقام مشاوره بیشتر در پی ایجاد خصومت است تا برخورد آشتی جویانه.

🔶 توصیف دیگری از وکیل او را در موضع « اسقف اعظم » قرار می دهد. کسی که نصایح و مشاوره های بدون جایگزین می دهد.

🔹 پند ها و مشورت هایی که گویی مستقیماً از منبعی نا شناخته واصل شده و موکّل فقط باید آن را بدون چون و چرا بپذیرد. از این دیدگاه در مشاوره وکیل و موکل کوچکترین اثری از همکاری و هم فکری نمی توان یافت.

🔶 به نظر برخی دیگر وکیل صرفاً یک « کاسب » است که اتفاقاً کالایی که عرضه می کند « خدمات حقوقی » است.

🔹 هدف اصلی او رسیدن به یک زندگی مادی خوب و مرفه است. چنین وکیلی هیچ علاقه عمیقی به واقعیت های پرونده یا انگیزه های موکّل ندارد. او بیشتر به انجام کاری که به او محول شده به نحو مطلوب و مؤثر و به دست آوردن احکام و قرار های مناسب حال موکل علاقه مند است.

🔶 با این حال دیگرانی هم هستند که آرمان گرایانه تر می اندیشند. آنها وکیل را فردی حرفه ای می بینند که مردم برای حل معضلات شان به او مراجعه می کنند.

🔹 وکیل از دید گروه اخیر کاملاً به پزشک ، مددکار اجتماعی یا روانپزشک و روانکاو شباهت دارد. چنین وکیلی ممکن است با آنچه در وراء واقعیت های ظاهری قضیّه وجود دارد درگیر و به کمک رسانی به همه ابعاد وجود ی موکّل علاقمند شود.

🔹 همان گونه که یک پزشک ممکن است یکی از بیماریهای بیمار خود را بهبود بخشد و با این حال بیمار بمیرد ، یک وکیل هم ممکن است بتواند دعوایی را که دارای بهترین نتایج برای موکلش نیست ، با کارایی و مهارت ، سامان دهد.

🔶 وکلایی که در پی « حل معضل » هستند فقط وقتی ورود به دعوا را توصیه می کنند که این اقدام را در جمع بندی نهایی ، فی الجمله ، به نفع موکل ارزیابی کنند.

🔹حق این است گفته شود هیچ وکیلی نیست که همواره در یکی از این قالب ها بگنجد. واقعیت این است وکلا با توجه به طبایع بشری ممکن است در حالات و پرونده های مختلف در نقش های متنوعی ظاهر شوند. و یا ، حسب مورد ، در هر یک از پرونده ها یکی از جنبه های پیش گفته پر رنگ تر باشد.

🔹 اما احتمالاً هر وکیل ، در تحلیل نهایی ، الگو و ساختار شخصیتی ویژه ای دارد که هنگام تصمیم گیری در خصوص اظهار نظر مشورتی و راهنمایی موکل ، ظاهر می شود. و به عنوان جنبه غالب شخصیت او راه را بر بروز سایر جنبه ها که بر شمردیم ، می بندد.

🔶 بی گمان ممکن است ضرورت های هر پرونده قرار گرفتن وکیل در یکی از قالب های پیش گفته را ایجاب کند. همچنین ممکن است بعضی از وکلا و برخی از موکلان ، بعضی قالب ها را بر برخی دیگر ترجیح دهند. انکار این موضوع فرار از واقعیت و « خود گول زنی » است.

🔹 اما آنچه به عنوان قاعده کلی قابل توصیه است ، این است بدون توجه به اینکه کدام قالب رفتاری – یا ترکیبی از قالب های رفتاری- در هر مورد خاصّ برگزیده می شود، اتخاذ تصمیم باید با نهایت احتیاط و با در نظر گرفتن همه فروض احتمالی و امکان جایگزینی راه حل ها باشد. در عین حال برگزیدن قالب مورد نظر باید با چنان وضوح و صراحتی برای موکّل توضیح داده شود که او را به درک قالب انتخابی و پذیرش توأم با قدردانی آن قادر سازد.

🔶 مطالبی که بیان شد دیدگاههای گوناگون موجود درباره حرفه وکالت است و چنان که دیدیم موقعیت وکیل در آن بین « قدّیس » و « هفت تیر کش حرفه ای » نوسان دارد.

🔹 اهل نظر ، به ویژه آنها که به اصطلاح « غرض و مرضی ندارند » می دانند وکلای دادگستری نزد مردم آگاه و با سواد کشور افرادی مورد اعتماد و قابل احترام محسوب می شوند.

🔶 همواره گفتۀ آن قاضی انگلیسی را به یاد می آورم که گفت : « آنان که نسبت به وکلا سوء ظن دارند و آنها را مردمانی منحرف و بد کار می انگارند در واقع قیاس به نفس می کنند. یعنی با مراجعه به درون خود به این نتیجه می رسند که اگر آنها در موضع و موقعیت وکیل قرار می گرفتند قطعاً منحرف می شدند و تبه کاری می کردند.! »

#وکیل_کاسب_نیست

#وکالت_کاسبی_نیست

توسط ج.بهشتی

تلفن تماس: +989023205638 021-88741789

54 دیدگاه

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